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Volume 40, pages 945-951, 1955
EDWARD HENRY KRAUS*
WALTER F. HUNT
This number of The American Mineralogist is dedicated by his colleagues and friends to Edward Henry Kraus on the occasion of his eightieth birthday in recognition of, and deep appreciation for, his numerous services to both the science of mineralogy that is his special field of scientific interest, and to the University of Michigan which he has served so faithfully for over forty years. In modern times there are few instances in which a single individual has been called upon to undertake so many varied and difficult tasks with such fruitful results.
His success in the various fields may be attributed to a rare combination of unusual personal characteristics by means of which he was able to translate desired goals into accomplished deeds. To those who have had the privilege of being closely associated with him, he will always be known as a stimulating teacher, a painstaking investigator, an able administrator and successful author of college texts that through the years have demonstrated lasting vitality. For one who was interested in so many worthwhile projects it is impossible in a short introduction to enumerate and evaluate all his numerous activities. Instead in the limited space available only a brief outline of some of the outstanding accomplishments will be recorded.
Edward H. Kraus was born in Syracuse, New York, Dec. 1, 1875, and received his early education in the schools and University of that city, receiving his B.S. in 1896 and M.S. in 1897. His alma mater on two occasions has paid tribute to his leadership in the fields of Science and Education through the granting of two honorary degrees, Doctor of Science in 1920 and Doctor of Laws in 1934. Shortly after completing his studies at Syracuse University he spent two years in Professor Paul Groth's laboratory at the University of Munich, Germany. Here he pursued advanced work in crystallography, optics and in the cognate subjects of geology and chemistry, and received. the degree of Ph.D. in 1901. This degree was renewed by the University of Munich on Sept. 15, 1952 - an unusual procedure. He returned to Syracuse and served on the faculty of that University during 1901-1902, when he was chosen as Head of the Science Department of Syracuse Central High School, a position he retained until he came to the University of Michigan as assistant professor of mineralogy in 1904. His advancement from the start was exceedingly rapid for two years later he was made junior professor and was promoted to a full professorship and director of the mineralogical laboratory in 1908. Under his leadership the department grew rapidly because of his energy, enthusiasm and foresight. He became emeritus in 1945.
In addition to being a stimulating teacher Dr. Kraus possesses rare executive and administrative abilities. He has therefore been called upon frequently to serve the University in various additional capacities: as Secretary of the Administrative Council of the Graduate School from 1908-1912; from 1911 to 1915 he served as Acting Dean of the Summer Session and from 1915 to 1933 as Dean. During this period the Summer Session became one of the foremost institutions of its kind in the country. In the College of Pharmacy he was Acting Dean from 1920 to 1923 and Dean from 1923 until 1933. In 1933 he was appointed Dean of the College of Literature, Science and the Arts, the largest single administrative unit of the University with an enrollment at that time of approximately 5000 students. Because of his manifold duties in his new position he was relieved of all formal teaching, although he continued to keep in close touch with the advances in mineralogy and frequently returned to his private office in the department where undisturbed he continued his investigations and writings.
Some of the older members will recall that Dr. Kraus was a member of the organization committee and as chairman was largely responsible for the founding of The Mineralogical Society of America. At the Albany meeting of The Geological Society of America in 1916 a small group of six decided to take some formal action as it was felt such action would stimulate greater interest in mineralogy and at the same time offer a ready outlet for the ever-increasing number of papers in this field. This small group consisted of Edward H. Kraus, Alexander H. Phillips, Frank R. Van Horn, Thomas L. Walker, Edgar T. Wherry and Herbert P. Whitlock. After considerable correspondence an organization meeting was called for December 30, 1919. At this meeting, held in conjunction with the 32nd annual meeting of the G.S.A., a group of 28 mineralogists met in the Mineralogical Museum of Harvard University and organized a new Society. The first President of the newly formed Society was Dr. Kraus, a signal honor to the leader of this small group and formal recognition by the Society that the goal of the organization committee had been achieved.
Dr. Kraus' interest in the activity and welfare of the Society has continued unabated throughout the years. It was his suggestion made at the 10th annual meeting that it would be very helpful if the Society had means to establish awards for research and noteworthy achievements in the field of mineralogy that ultimately led to the establishment of the Roebling Medal in 1930.
Dr. Kraus is a fellow of The Mineralogical Society of America (President in 1920 and recently appointed Honorary President by the Council), The Geological Society of America since 1902, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He also holds membership in the American Chemical Society, Optical Society of America, American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers, Michigan Academy of Science, Arts and Letters (President in 1920), American Pharmaceutical Association, American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (President in 1926), and for ten years (1930-1940) served on the committee on the revision of the U.S. Pharmacopea. He is an honorary fellow of the American College of Dentists and honorary member of Die Deutsche Mineralogische Gesellschaft, Die Deutsche Gesellschaft für Edelsteinkunde,. the Gemological Association of Great Britain, the Gemological Institute of America and is a certified gemologist of the American Gem Society.
Although burdened for a long period by many time-consuming administrative duties, he still found opportunity to contribute liberally to mineralogical literature. His list of about 100 publications covers a wide range of subjects relating to the occurrence and origin of minerals, crystallographic forms observed on crystals, new apparatus to determine specific properties of minerals and rocks, and papers and addresses dealing with educational trends and policies. He was one of the pioneers in the study of the variation of hardness in the diamond, a subject that in recent years has become of prime importance not only in diamond cutting but in diamond drilling explorations as well. In this connection it should be mentioned that Dr. Kraus was the organizer and chairman of three Symposiums on Diamonds in 1941, 1942 and 1945.
Dr. Kraus was largely instrumental in offering constructive suggestions that resulted in the design of the Roebling medal, and he also gave the presentation addresses of four Roebling medalists: Charles Palache (1937); Paul Niggli (1947); Fred. E. Wright (1952); and William F. Foshag (1953).
In addition to his long list of papers, he is the sole author of two and senior co-author with his colleagues of three texts on Crystallography, Tables for the Determination of Minerals, Descriptive and General Mineralogy, and Gems and Gem Materials. The last two are in their fourth and fifth editions, respectively, indicating widespread adoptions.
One of the highest honors that can be conferred by the University of Michigan on a member of its faculty came to Dr. Kraus when he was chosen the Henry Russell Lecturer in 1945. The selection of the recipient of this lectureship is made each year by the University Research Club. It was in this same year that he received the Roebling Medal from The Mineralogical Society of America. In 1954 he was selected to give the Orton Lecture before the American Ceramic Society.
While the above citations record accomplishments in the scientific field, this introduction would be wholly inadequate if it did not mention his sterling character and genuine interest in civic, church and humane activities. Uncompromising in his attitude when a wrong or an unethical act has been committed he unhesitatingly refuses to compromise for the sake of expediency - attributes inherent in a true Christian gentleman.
For the past seven years he has been President of the Humane Society of Washtenaw County, Michigan, and has exercised the same energy, enthusiasm and foresight that have been shown in other endeavors and he was largely responsible for bringing into being a "shelter" for the protection and care of animals that has been acclaimed one of the best in the country.
I am sure his numerous friends will agree with the writer that in dedicating this issue to Dr. Kraus we are paying a well merited tribute to his long and varied service in many fields. This writing finds him hale, hearty and vigorous, which bespeaks continued interest in the welfare of the Society. It is the hope that the Society will continue to receive the benefits of his wise counsel for many years to come.
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF EDWARD H. KRAUS
Essentials of Crystallography. x+162 pp., 427 illus. George Wahr, Ann Arbor, Michigan (1906).
Descriptive Mineralogy. viii+334 pp., 157 illus. George Wahr, Ann Arbor, Michigan (1911).
Tables for the Determination of Minerals (with W. F. Hunt). First edition, vii+254 pp., 2 illus. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York (1911). Second edition, ix+266 pp., 2 illus. (1930). (With W. F. Hunt).
Mineralogy - An Introduction to the Study of Minerals and Crystals. (With W. F. Hunt). First edition, xiv+56t pp., 696 illus. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York (1920). Second edition, ix+604 pp., 766 illus. (1928). (With W. F. Hunt). Third edition, ix+638 pp., 712 illus. (1936). (With W. F. Hunt and L. S. Ramsdell). Fourth edition, ix+664 pp., 735 illus. (1951). (With W. F. Hunt and L. S. Ramsdell).
Gems and Gem Materials. (With E. F. Holden). First edition, vii+222 pp., 256 illus. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York (1925). Second edition, ix+260 pp., 325 illus.(1931). (With E. H. Holden). Third edition, xiii+287 pp., 344 illus., 4 colored plates. (1939). (With C. B. Slawson). Fourth edition, xiii+287 pp., 344 illus. (1941). (With C. B. Slawson). Fifth edition, ix+322 pp., 403 illus., 4 colored plates. (1947), (With C. B. Slawson).
The occurrence of celestite near Syracuse, New York, and its relation to the vermicular limestones of the Salina epoch: Am. Jour. Sci., 18, 30-40 (1904).
Occurrence and distribution of celestite-bearing rocks: Am. Jour. Sci., 19, 286-293 (1905).
On the origin of the caves of Put-in-Bay, Lake Erie: Am. Geologist, 35, 167-171 (1905).
On the origin of the sulphur deposits of the Woolmith quarry, Maybee, Monroe County, Michigan: 7th annual report of the Michigan Academy of Science, 26-29 (1905).
Crystallization of phenylsemicarbazide and semicarbazide hydrochloride: Jour. Am. Chem. Soc., 27, 1102 (1905) .
Hydration caves: Science, 22, 502-503 (1905).
The teaching of crystallography: Science, 24, 855-856 (1906).
(With W. F. Hunt). The occurrence of sulphur and celestite at Maybee, Monroe County, Michigan: Am. Jour. Sci., 21, 237-244 (1906); also in Zeits. Kryst., 42, 1-7 (1906). (With C. W. Cook).
Datolite from Westfield, Massachusetts: Am. Jour. Sci., 22, 21-28 (1906); also Zeits. Kryst., 42, 327-333 (1906).
(With I. D. Scott). Ueber interessante Amerkanische Pyritkrystalle: Zeit. Kryst., 44, 144-153 (1907).
Crystallization of marrubiun: Jour. Am. Chem. Soc., 30, 265-271 (1908).
Interpretation of the chemical composition of the mineral benitoite: Science, 27, 710-711 (1908).
(With C. P. Long). Krystallform des unsymmetrischen tetraphenylethane: Zeits. Kryst., 45, 617 (1908).
(With C. W. Cook.) Iodyrite from Tonopah, Nevada, and Broken Hill, New South Wales: Am. Jour. Sci., 27, 210-222 (1909); also Zeits. Kryst, 46, 417-426 (1909).
Crystallography of isocalycanthine: Jour. Am. Chem. Soc., 31, 1307-1308 (1909).
A new jolly balance: Am. Jour. Sci., 31, 561-563 (1911); also Central. f. Mineralogie, etc., 366-368 (1911).
(With H. C. Cooper and A. A. Klein). Lead silicates: Am. Chem. Jour., 47, 273-285 (1912); also Central. f. Mineralogie, etc., 289-295 (1912).
(With L. J. Youngs). Ueber die Aenderungen des optischen Achsenwinkels in Gyps mit der Temperatur: Neues Jahrb. f. Mineralogie, etc., I, 123-146 (1912).
Crystallography of lead formate: Jour. Ind. and Eng. Chem., 4, 527-528 (1912).
(With C. W. Cook). Die Kristallformen des Iodyrite von Tonapah, Nevada: Central. f. Mineralogie, etc., 385-386 (1913).
Die Aenderungen des Optischen Achsenwinkels im Glauberit mit der Temperatur: Zeits. Kryst., 52, 321-326 (1913).
(With J. P. Goldsberry). The chemical composition of bornite and its relation to the sulpho-minerals: Am. Jour. Sci., 37, 539-553 (1914); also Neues Jahrb. f. Mineralogie, etc., 11, 127-144 (1914).
(With L. J. Youngs). Ein neuer Erhitzungsapparat zur Bestimmung der Aenderungen des Optischen Achsenwinkels bei hoeheren Temperaturen: Central. f. Mineralogie, etc., 356-359 (1914).
(With C. W. Cook). Datolite from Great Notch, New Jersey: Am. Jour. Sci., 39, 642-645 (1915).
(With W. F. Hunt). Manganhaltiger albit von Kalifornien: Central. f. Mineralogie, etc., 465-467 (1915).
(With W. F. Hunt). Note on the variable composition of melanochalcite: Am. Jour. Sci., 41, 211-214 (1916).
(With A. B. Peck). Ueber Anglesit von dem Tinticdistrikt, Utah: Neues Jahrb. f. Mineralogie, etc., II, 17-30 (1916).
(With A. B. Peck). Some new thermo-optical observations on gypsum and glauberite: 19th Annual Report of the Michigan Academy of Science, 95-100 (1917).
Haüy's contribution to our knowledge of isomorphism: Am. Mineral., 3, 126-130 (1918).
The new mineralogical laboratory of the University of Michigan: Am. Mineral., 4, 45-56 (1919).
The future of mineralogy in America. Presidential address, Mineralogical Society of America, Chicago, December 1920; Science 53, 219-226 (1921); also Am. Mineral., 6, 23-24 (1921).
Mineralogy for students of dentistry: Am. Mineral., 7, 203-207 (1922); also Jour. Am. Dental Assoc., May 1923.
Some unusual specimens of float copper: Am. Mineral., 9, 23-26 (1924).
Memorial of Edward F. Holden: Am. Mineral., 11, 57-59 (1926).
A calculating jolly balance: Am. Mineral., 11, 169-172 (1926).
The gem cutters of Idar-on-the-Nahe; Dearborn Independent, 27, No. 6, 14-15 (1927).
Memorial of Paul Heinrich von Groth: Am. Mineral., 13, 93-96 (1928); also Science, 67, 150-152 (1928).
The first ten years of the Mineralogical Society of America: Am. Mineral., 15, 98-103 (1930).
(With W. A. Seaman and C. B. Slawson). Seamanite, a new manganese phosphoborate from Iron County, Michigan: Am.. Mineral., 15, 220-225 (1930).
The quest for synthetic diamonds: Jewelers Circular, 102, 39 and 48 (1932).
Memorial of Frederick J. K. Becke: Am. Mineral., 17, 226-227 (1932).
Memorial of Frank R. Van Horn: Am. Mineral., 19, 101-105 (1934).
A notable centennial in American mineralogy: Am. Mineral., 23, 145-148 (1938); also in Proc. Geol. Soc. Am., 58-60 (1937).
Roebling medal presentation to Charles Palache: Am. Mineral., 23, 54-57 (1938).
Memorial of Reinhard Brauns: Am. Mineral., 23, 131-133 (1938).
(With C. B. Slawson). Variation of hardness in the diamond: Am. Mineral., 24, 661-676 (1939).
New uses for old minerals: in frontiers of geology, Geol. Soc. Am., (April 1939) 4 pages; also The Mines Mag., 29, 9 (1939), 480, 490, 495; Science Digest, 6, 6, 77-80 (1939); also Pan-Am. Geol., 47, 326-330 (1940-1941).
(With C. B. Slawson). Cutting diamonds for industrial purposes: Am. Mineral., 153-160 (1941).
Mineralogy: in Geology, 1888-1938, Fiftieth anniversary volume: Geol. Soc. Am.. 307-332 (1941).
Luxury to utility-the place of gem stones in war industry: Mich. Alumnus Quart. Rev., 49, 331-336 (1943).
Did J. B. Hannay produce "laboratory diamonds" in 1880?: Jewelers' Circular Keystone, 120, 122, 124 (April 1944).
The might of a crystal: Mich. Alumnus Quart. Rev., 51, 42-48 (1944).
Acceptance of the Roebling Medal of the Mineralogical Society of America: Am. Mineral., 30, 115-123 (1945). Also abridged as Minerals in industry: Industrial Diamond Rev. (London) 5, 193-195.
The unfolding crystal-Henry Russel lecture: Mich. Alumnus Quart. Rev., 52, 54-65 (1945).
Mineralogy-in ten eventful years, 1937-1946: Encyclopedia Britannica, 3, 174-176 (1947).
Gemology in North America: Gems and Gemology, 5, 383-386, 403, 407-408 (1947).
Gemology serves the public: Mich. Alumnus Quart. Rev., 54, 71-76 (1947).
Presentation of Roebling Medal to Paul Niggli: Am. Mineral., 33, 158-160 (1948).
Mineralogy. Rev. ed., 1947. In Britannica Book of the Year, 485 (1948).
Mineralogy. Rev. ed., 1948. Ibid., 468-469 (1949).
Mineralogy. Rev. ed., 1949. Ibid., 450-451 (1950).
Mineralogy. Rev. ed., 1950. Ibid., 461-462 (1951).
Standardizing the nomenclature of gems and gemology: Gems and Gemology, 6, 147-150 (1949).
Progress report on the standardizing of the nomenclature of gems: Gems and Gemology, 6, 278-290 (1950).
Walter Frederick Hunt: Am. Mineral., 38, 1-3 (1953).
Presentation of the Roebling Medal to Frederick Eugene Wright: Am. Mineral., 38, 390-392 (1953).
Mineralogy, Rev. ed. 1951. In Britannica Book of the Year, 461-462 (1952).
Mineralogy, Rev. ed. 1952. Ibid., 463 (1953).
Have diamonds ever been made in the laboratory?; Guilds (Los Angeles) 8, 6, 11 (1953).
Classification and definition of varieties of diamond: Ind. Diamond Rev. (London) 13, 86 (1953).
Presentation of the Roebling Medal to William F. Foshag: Am. Mineral., 39, 293-295 (1954).
* Contribution from the Department of Mineralogy and Petrography, University of Michigan, No. 196.