Electronic Format Instructions


      All figures should be submitted in an electronic format. For the review copy, the figures can be inserted into the text document or collected into a pdf file. Each figure should be placed on a separate page and be designed to follow the tables. Each figure should have a caption that gives important information. Figure captions should begin with the text "Figure #." in bold. Figure pages should be numbered sequentially.

    Normal practices involving figure production should be followed (e.g. readability, font sizes, line sizes). Figure captions should not repeat information in the text, but should be sufficiently informative that a reader can understand the figure and its significance from reading just the caption. 

    Inasmuch as figures will ultimately be displayed electronically, special consideration should be paid to additional factors.

Bitmapped images
   Photographs and other pixel-based images should be sized appropriately (see below) with image-processing software. Word processing software, such as Microsoft Word, is not optimized for working with images so that file sizes increase dramatically if the images are edited with the word processor. Do not modify images in word processing or presentation software (Word or PowerPoint).

    Image size. For most bitmapped images, such as photographs, the maximum image width will be 6.5 inches, which is the width available on a printed page with one-inch margins. However, it is also possible to place images on a pages in a "landscape" orientation, rather than a "portrait" orientation, which increases the available width to 9 inches. Authors should consider rollover enlargements if large figures are needed to reduce the number of printed pages for those who do choose to print GMR articles.

    Image resolution. The resolution of computer monitors is approximately 72 dpi (dots/inch). Pixel images (JPEG, TIFF, GIF) should be created with resolution that provides the optimal clarity of image at the smallest file size in order to speed loading of images on the web browser. In some cases, greater resolution is needed for scientific clarity. Therefore, GMR will publish photos and other bitmap images at 144 dpi as appropriate. This will give higher-quality prints of the images and allows the reader to "zoom in" for a more detailed look at the images on the computer screen.

    File size. Enormous files take a long time to load over the www and a paper with numerous large figure files would be difficult to read. Authors must balance the content of figures against the practicality of load times. Large image files can be published by GMR, but they will normally be included as separate files that do not have to be downloaded to view the pdf text file.

Postscript images
   Postscript images of drawings generally have small file sizes, can be magnified on screen by Adobe Acrobat Reader, and will print very clearly on a high-resolution, postscript printer. Therefore, line drawings of graphs, diagrams, and other object-oriented graphic images, should be converted to postscript, encapsulated postscript (EPS), or pdf files for final submission after a manuscript is accepted for publication. Do not convert line drawings to bitmapped images because their readability and resolution is degraded considerably. Be sure to consult with one of the editors if you have any questions concerning figure file format. 


    Animated gif images and quicktime movies are supported by most browsers and are encouraged. Again, attention should be paid to file sizes to obtain optimal loading times. Examples of movies can be found on the GMR Examples page.

Other Electronic Content

    The editors recognize that there are evolving technologies that may be used to further scientific communication and understanding and welcome manuscript submission that may use these technologies. Please contact Frank Spear or John Brady with any questions regarding the use of electronic content.

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